Classification of Dental Implants

Dental implants is an artificial tooth replacement surgery that replaces missing or damaged teeth. Many people choose this method, as it is a standard and recognized method for tooth replacement.

The classification of dental implants is based on five things:
1. Implant design
2. Mechanism of attachment
3. Design of microscopic body
4. Surface of the implant and
5. Material used

1. Implant design
Implant design is classified into, endosteal implants (ramus frame, root form and blade form), subperiosteal implants, transosteal implants and intramucosal implants.

  • Endosteal implant: They are made up of metallic, ceramic or polymeric material and are available in the form of blade, screw or pin. This is most commonly used and safer method than other methods. Ramus frame implants are made of titanium material. They are horse shoe shaped devices placed above the gum tissue. Root form implant resembles natural teeth and are 100% biocompatable. Blade form implants are very thin and long metallic plates. These implants are placed into the bone.
  • Subperiosteal implant: These implants are light weight metal implants. This type of implant is placed under the bone. It is suitable for patients having limited jaw structure.
  • Transosteal implant: These implants are for people who do not have enough jaw bone and no teeth on lower jaw. This type of implants are placed through the chin bone until it gets exposed into the mouth. Then denture is placed on the implant.
  • Intramucosal implant: These implants are designed as mushroom shape with titanium projections. They are used to fix teeth on upper jaw. In this procedure implants are placed in two rows and then dentures are paced on implants.

2. Mechanism of attachment
Mechanism attachment is classified into, osseointegration and fibrointegration (peridontal fibers).

  • Osseointegration: Osseointegration is a process in which an implant is placed. In this mechanism, there is a contact between bone and the loaded implants surface. By this process one can replace from single tooth to all the teeth on upper and lower jaw.
  • Fibrointegration (periodontal fibers): In this process, there is an encapsulation of implant with the soft tissue. In this process, the abutment is attached immediately after the placement of implant.

3. Design of microscopic body
Classification based on design of microscopic body of implant. They are classified into, cylinder, thread, plateau, perforated, solid and hallow implants.

  • Cylinder dental implant: These dental implants are available in cylindrical shape and have small surface area. They are used to replace single teeth on jaw bone.
  • Thread dental implant: The surface of these Implants are threaded to maximize the surface area of the implant.
  • Plateau dental implant: These implants have sloping shoulder and are plateau in shape. They are designed for simplicity and versatility. They have maximum strength between the bone and the implant surface area.
  • Perforated dental implant: These implants are perforated with the mixture of cellulose acetate and supported by the perforated metallic sheet layer.
  • Solid dental implant: These have circular cross section without vent or hallow in the body.
  • Hallow dental implant: These are hallow shaped in the apical portion and perforations are made on the sides of the implant.

4. Surface of the implant
Surface of the implant is classified into smooth, machined, textured and coated.

  • Smooth surface implant: To prevent the microbial plaque retention these implants are designed to have very smooth surface.
  • Machined surface implant: To provide support to the bone, these implants are machined on their surfaces.
  • Textured surface implant: The bondage between the implant and the bone increases the surface roughness of the implant.
  • Coated surface implant: The porous coating materials used for coating the implants are Titanium and hydroxy apatite.

5. Material used
Based on the type of material used, dental implants are classified into metallic, ceramic, polymer and carbon compound.

  • Metallic implant: Commonly used metal implants are made up of titanium, stainless steel, vitallium and cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy.
  • Ceramic implant: Implants are coated with ceramic materials like plasma sprays to produce bio active surface.
  • Polymeric implant: Polymethyl methacrylate and polytetra flouroethylene are the forms of polymeric dental implants. These implants acts as adjuncts with other implants.
  • Carbon compounded implant: They are made up of carbon or stainless steel.